三,全球二氧化碳监测科学实验卫星 TanSat

 主题:全球二氧化碳科学监测试验卫星 TanSat 
简要目录:
3.1 研发背景(Background) 
3.2 研制单位(Developer and Manufacturer) 
3.3 目标任务(Satellite Mission) 
3.4 基本数据(Details) 
3.5 星上载荷(On-board Payload) 
3.6 卫星特点(Feature) 
3.7 科研成果(Achievement) 
3.8 相关技术性文件(Related Documents) 
本文由Brace Bai, Boyuan Pan, Xianghui Chen整理及编写
3.1   研发背景(Background)

2009年,国家遥感中心组织专家组开始中国碳卫星的前期战略研究工作;2011年在863计划的支持下“全球二氧化碳监测科学实验卫星与应用示范”重大项目(中国碳卫星)正式立项。
注:国家863计划也称国家高技术研究发展计划,1986年3月提出并批准的一项高新科技发展计划,其历史背景是1983年美国总统罗纳德·里根提出了星球大战计划。863计划是以政府为主导、以一些有限的领域为研究目标的一个基础研究的国家性计划,于2016年结束,并由国家重点研发计划取代。

In order to study the global distribution of CO2, “global CO2 detection scientific test satellite” program, or TanSat, was established by the national “863” plan. The TanSat project was proposed in the Chinese national program in 2010 development started in January 2011. TanSat is funded by MOST (Ministry of Science and Technology) of China.

3.2   研制单位(Developer and Manufacturer)

中国科学院负责工程总体,中国科学院国家空间科学中心、微小卫星创新研究院、长春光学精密机械与物理研究所、大气物理研究所和中国气象局国家卫星气象中心等国内外多家单位共同承担。

CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) undertakes the leading role of funding in satellite development, with two scientific instruments designed and manufactured by CIOMP/CAS (Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics/Chinese Academy of Sciences), located in Changchun, China. The satellite platform is developed by SIMIT (Shanghai Institute of Microsystems and Information Technology), which is also responsible for the overall satellite assembly, integration and testing. NSMC (National Satellite Meteorological Center) of CMA (China Meteorological Administration) is responsible for the ground segment and final data products. The project also includes international partners such as the University of Leicester and the University of Edinburgh, UK.

3.3   目标任务(Satellite Mission)

项目目标研制并发射一颗“以高光谱二氧化碳探测仪、多谱段云与气溶胶探测仪为主要载荷的高空间分辨率和高光谱分辨率全球二氧化碳监测科学实卫星”,建立高光谱卫星地面数据处理与验证系统,形成对全球、中国及其他重点地区大气二氧化碳浓度监测能力,监测精度达到1-4ppm。

The main objective of the TanSat mission is to retrieve the atmosphere column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2) with precisions of 1% (4 ppm) on national and global scales. The scientific goal of the project is to improve the understanding of the global CO2 distribution and its contribution to climate change and also to monitor the CO2 variation on seasonal time scales.

3.4   基本数据(Details)

质量:630kg
功率:600W
轨道:700公里太阳同步轨道 98.16度倾角
轨道偏心率:0.002272
设计寿命:3年
发射日期:2016年12月22日3时22分
发射地点:酒泉卫星发射中心
运载火箭:长征二号丁
交付日期:2017年8月31日
当前状态:超期服役

Mass at launch: 630kg
Power: 600W
Orbit: Sun-synchronous orbit at 700km altitude
Orbital eccentricity:0.002272
Designed Life: 3 years
Launch time: 2016-12-22 3:22 (UTC+8)
Launch Site: Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Carrier rocket: Long March 2D
Delivery date: 2017-8-31
Current Status: Operational, Extended service

3.5   星上载荷(On-board Payload)

高光谱与高空间分辨率大气二氧化碳探测仪(Atmospheric Carbon-dioxide Grating Spectrometer ACGS):重约170kg,功率约为700w,其基于大气吸收池原理,利用对地球反射的近红外/短波红外太阳辐射对大气中二氧化碳的含量进行探测,获取高精度的大气吸收光谱。对吸收光谱的强弱进行严格定量测量,综合气压、温度等辅助信息并排除大气悬浮微粒等干扰因素,应用反演算法即可计算出卫星在观测路径上二氧化碳的柱浓度。通过对全球柱浓度的序列分析,并借助数据同化系统的一系列模型,可推演出全球二氧化碳的通量变化。本载荷采用大面积衍射光栅对吸收光谱进行细分,能够探测2.06μm、1.6μm、0.76μm 三个大气吸收光谱通道,最高分辨率达到0.04nm,如此高的分辨率在国内光谱仪器的研制上尚属首次。
多谱段云与气溶胶偏振成像仪:重约80kg, 功率约为70w,用于测量云、大气颗粒物等辅助信息,为精确反演二氧化碳浓度剔除干扰因素。获取的全球尺度气溶胶数据,这不仅可以帮助气象学家提高天气预报的准确性,还可以为研究PM2.5等大气污染成因提供重要数据支撑。
TanSat is designed to have three scientific observation modes to collect the sunlight reflected by the Earth: nadir, ocean glint and surface target. The same data sampling rate is used for the three modes. In each mode, the instrument can collect up to 20 soundings every 0.3s. The mission will regularly perform four types of calibration modes: dark current, lamp, solar viewing for spectral and radiometric calibration. CAPI will use lunar viewing for radiometric calibration.
Atmospheric Carbon-dioxide Grating Spectroradiometer (ACGS): A high-resolution grating spectrometer dedicated to CO2 detection by measuring the near-infrared absorption of CO2 at 1.61 μm and at 2.06 μm, and the molecular oxygen (O2) A-band in reflected sunlight at 0.76 μm. The resolving power in the A-band is near 21,000, while it is near 12,000 in the CO2 bands. The footprint size is ~2 km x 2 km and the swath is 20 km wide at nadir.
Cloud-Aerosol Polarization Imager(CAPI):
a wide FOV (Field of View) moderate resolution imaging spectrometer with polarization channels, used to compensate errors which are caused by clouds and aerosols based on observation in three spectral bands.

 3.6 卫星特色(Features)

“碳卫星”作为全球第三颗,我国首颗用于监测全球大气二氧化碳含量的科学实验卫星,使我国在大气二氧化碳监测方面跻身国际前列。通过检测全球碳排放数据,对提升我国在国际气候变化方面的话语权具有重要意义。

TanSat is the world’s third and China’s first scientific experimental satellite for monitoring the global atmospheric carbon dioxide content. It has made our country rank among the forefront of international carbon dioxide monitoring. The detection of global carbon emission data exhibits a great significance for enhancing China’s right to speak in terms of international climate change.

3.7   科研成果(Achievement)

 

在国家高技术研究发展计划(863)“中国碳卫星”和中科院战略性科技先导专项“碳专项”等的资助下,大气所团队核心成员、博士杨东旭研发了卫星遥感反演算法(Institute of Atmospheric Physics Carbon dioxide retrieval Algorithm for Satellite observation-IAPCAS)。该算法是基于非线性最优估计方法的“全物理”反演算法,需要高精度模拟太阳辐射在大气中的传输过程。算法充分优化气溶胶光学性质随波长的变化以及卷云的连续吸收等特征,显著降低系统误差,提高反演精度;另一方面,发展了快速矢量辐射传输计算方法,在保证精度的同时,大幅提高计算效率;前期研究表明,算法精度已达国际先进水平。利用该反演算法解析中国碳卫星观测数据,获得了全球二氧化碳分布图。
同时,攻克了植被日光诱导叶绿素荧光(SIF)卫星反演关键技术,并成功应用于我国首颗二氧化碳观测科学实验卫星(TanSat)。

获得国产卫星观测的全球植被SIF时空分布科学数据,实现了国产卫星SIF遥感产品从无到有的突破,能够清晰显示各地植被生产力与碳汇能力的动态变化。相关研究成果以“Retrieval of global terrestrial solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence from TanSat satellite”为题发表在Science Bulletin2018年第22期。

April 13, 2018: TanSat has produced its first global carbon dioxide maps. TanSat was launched by a collaborative team of researchers in China, and these maps are the first steps for the satellite to provide global carbon dioxide measurements for future climate change research. The researchers published the maps, based on data collected in April and July 2017, in the latest edition of the journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, a Springer journal. Overcame the key technology of vegetation sunlight-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) satellite inversion, and successfully applied it to China’s first CO2 observation scientific experiment satellite (TanSat), obtained the scientific data of global vegetation SIF spatial and temporal distribution observed by domestic satellites, and realized the domestic satellite SIF The breakthrough of remote sensing products can clearly show the dynamic changes of vegetation productivity and carbon sink capacity in various places. Related research Achievement was published in Science Bulletin No. 22 of 2018 with the title of “Retrieval of global-terrestrial solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence from TanSat satellite”.

3.8   相关技术性文件(Related Documents)

(1) First global terrestrial solar-induced terrestrial solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence mapping from TanSat satellite:algorithm and product.  / 中国科学院 – 遥感与数字地球研究所 会议文件 2018.12
点击此处下载               文件大小:22MB

(2) In-Flight Performance of TanSat Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Grating Spectrometer /  中国气象局 – 国家气象卫星应用中心 Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System 会议文件 2018.3
点击此处下载                文件大小:14MB

(3) Preliminary Assessment of TanSat Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Grating Spectroradiometer on-orbit Performance / 中国气象局 – 国家气象卫星应用中心 / 赫尔辛基大学 会议文件 2017.6
点击此处下载                 文件大小:7.5MB

4. TanSat mission achievement and Chinese CO2 fluxes inversion from satellite observations / 中国科学院 – 大气物理研究所 / GEOSS Asia Pacific Symposium 会议文件 2018.10
点击此处下载                  文件大小:2.6MB

5. TanSat Mission Achievements-from Scientific Driving to Preliminary Observations / 期刊论文
点击此处下载                   文件大小:1.6MB

6. The Status of Chinese Carbon Dioxide Obervation Satellite(TanSat) / 中国科学院 – 大气物理研究所 / International Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Space (IWGGMS-9)  会议文件 2013.5
点击此处下载                   文件大小:4.2MB

7. The TanSat on-broad Status, data product and future plans 中国科学院 – 大气物理研究所 / International Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Space (IWGGMS-14)  会议文件 2018.5
点击此处下载                     文件大小:25MB

8. Monitoring Global Carbon Dioxide from space-the TanSat Mission Processes / 中国科学院 – 大气物理研究所 / International Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Space (IWGGMS-15)  会议文件 2019.5
点击此处下载                       文件大小:8MB

9. Monitoring Carbon Dioxide from space- retrieval algorithm – Cal&Val and application / 中国科学技术部 – 欧洲空间局 “龙计划”学术研讨会 会议文件
点击此处下载                        文件大小:6.8MB

10. Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observation using an ensemble Kalman Filter / 期刊论文
点击此处下载                        文件大小:1MB

11. First Global Carbon Dioxide Maps Produced from TanSat Measurements / 期刊论文
点击此处下载                          文件大小:632KB

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