二,“慧眼”硬X射线调制望远镜 The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT)


主题:"慧眼"硬X射线调制望远镜 Hard X‑ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT)
简要目录:
2.1 研发背景(Background)
2.2 研制单位(Developer and Manufacturer)
2.3 目标任务(Satellite Mission)
2.4 基本数据(Details)
2.5 星上载荷(On-board Payload)
2.6 卫星特点(Feature)
2.7 科研成果(Achievement)
2.8 相关技术性文件(Related Documents)
本文由Brace Bai, Alan Pan, Luna Chen整理及编写

2.1       背景(Backgroud)

“慧眼”卫星,是我国自主设计研制的首颗大型X射线天文卫星,是中国科学院空间科学先导专项发射的第四颗卫星,由国防科工局和中国科学院共同支持、联合实施。

Astronomical X-ray observation can only be done in the outer space. The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) proposed in 1993 by Li Tibei, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is China’s first astronomical satellite. It is the fourth satellite mission in the framework of the Strategic Pioneer Research Program in Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

2.2   研制单位(Developer and Manufacturer )

卫星、运载火箭分别由中国航天科技集团公司中国空间技术研究院、上海航天技术研究院研制,地面测控系统由西安卫星测控中心负责,中科院国家空间科学中心、遥感与数字地球研究所和高能物理研究所分别负责地面应用系统建设及卫星数据接收、处理、分发和科学应用。

The satellite and launch vehicle were developed by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, China Academy of Space Technology, and Shanghai Aerospace Technology Research Institute respectively. The ground measurement and control system is in charge of the Xi’an Satellite Measurement and Control Center. The Institute is responsible for the construction of ground application systems and the reception, processing, distribution and scientific application of satellite data.

2.3   目标任务(Satellite Mission)

“慧眼”可以进行宽波段大天区X射线巡天成像,具有独特的观测黑洞、中子星等高能天体多波段X射线快速光变的能力,并可以监视天空的高能爆发现象,HXMT的在轨观测将大大加深天体上的剧烈爆发过程、中子星强磁场合黑洞强引力场中的动力学、高能辐射过程的认识。

HXMT performs a broadband (1–250 keV) all-sky survey, in which a large number of massive black holes and other high energy objects will be detected, and the properties of cosmic X-ray background will be more tightly constrained. HXMT conducts pointed observations of the black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries, study their multi-wavelength variability, and probe the dynamics and high energy radiation process in the strong gravitational field or magnetic field.

2.4   基本数据(Details)

质量:2500kg
轨道:550公里43°倾角轨道
设计寿命:4年
发射日期:2017年6月15日11时00分
发射地点:酒泉卫星发射中心
运载火箭:长征四号乙
交付日期:2018年1月30日
当前状态:正常服役

Mass at launch: 2500kg
Orbit: Circular orbit at 550altitude with 43°inclination
Designed Life: 4 years
Launch time: 2017-6-15 11:00 (UTC+8)
Launch Site: Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Carrier rocket: Long March 4B
Delivery date: 2018-1-30
Current Status: Operational, Normal service

2.5   星上载荷(On-board Payload)


“慧眼”载荷重量981公斤,其上同时安装了高能X射线望远镜、中能X射线望远镜、低能X射线望远镜共计三组X射线望远镜,以及空间环境监视器(SME)。“慧眼”首次实现了1-250keV的能区全覆盖,有利于从不同能段来观测和研究X射线天体的辐射机制。

The payloads onboard HXMT include the High Energy X-ray Telescope, the Medium Energy X-ray Telescope, the Low Energy X-ray Telescope, as well as a Space Environment Monitor. The three telescope cover broad band (1–250 keV) the fist time.

其中,高能X射线望远镜(HE)由18套探测单元组成,每个探测单元由一个NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na)复合晶体探测器和一个准直器构成,并负责完成20-250keV的硬X射线观测任务。

中能X射线望远镜(ME)主要负责8~35keV的硬X射线观测任务,探测装置包括三个探测器机箱(MED1,MED2,MED3)和一个电控箱(MEB)。它们安装在高能X射线望远镜的一侧,探测器机箱的长边方向每每相差60°,而电控箱位于卫星载荷舱内。ME探测器为Si-PIN阵列,分成9个可独立工作的探测单元,每3个探测单元组成1个探测器机箱。探测器上方安装准直器。每个探测单元包括6个探测模块,每个探测模块包括32路Si-PIN探测器。为了保持低的噪声水平和较高的能量分辨,Si-PIN探测器需要工作在低温下,在轨通过遮阳板遮住太阳光并通过辐射制冷板将探测器的工作温度控制在-10℃以下。

而低能X射线望远镜(LE)主要负责1~12 KeV的硬X射线观测任务,探测装置包括3个可独立工作的探测器组件,并由一个电控箱控制,每个组件包括8个探测器模块.

2.6   Features

“慧眼”的探测面积很大,尤其是高能望远镜的探测面积超过了5000平方厘米,是国际上同能区探测器中面积最大的。“慧眼”的视场也很大,约两天即可完成对银道面的扫描,有利于监测暂现源。是建立在中国科学家李惕碚和吴枚提出的直接解调成像方法之上的准直型望远镜,因此它还具有观测亮源的优势。

The high-energy telescopes onboard HXMT has a detection area of exceeds 5000 square centimeters, which is the largest among the detectors in the same energy zone in the world. The field of vision is also very large. And the scanning of the galactic plane can be completed in about two days, which is conducive to monitoring the temporary source. It is a collimating telescope based on the direct demodulation imaging method proposed by Chinese scientists Li Tibei and Wu Mei, so it also has the advantage of observing bright sources.

2.7    成果(Achievements)

“慧眼”卫星已多次参加国际空间和地面的联测,获得了银道面扫描巡天、黑洞、中子星、太阳耀发等的大量观测数据。“慧眼”卫星确认发现并且发布了超过40个伽马射线暴(超出仪器原设计能力,未在原定科学目标中),其中超过20个伽马暴是“慧眼”首先发布,其中3个是单独发现(其它卫星没探测到),直接测量到了目前最强的中子星磁场回旋吸收线,完成了国内最高精度的脉冲星导航试验,是国际上发现率最高的设备之一。

HXMT has participated in joint surveys of international space and ground many times and has obtained a large amount of observation data of galactic plane scanning surveys, black holes, neutron stars, and solar flares. HXMT confirmed the discovery and released more than 40 gamma-ray bursts (beyond the original design capabilities of the instrument, not in the original scientific goal), of which more than 20 gamma bursts were first released by HXMT, of which 3 were found separately (not detected by other satellites). HXMT directly measured the strongest neutron star magnetic field cyclotron absorption line and completed the highest-precision pulsar navigation test in China. It has the highest discovery rate among similar devices in the world.

2.8   相关技术性文件(Related Documents)
  1. Introduction to Insight-HXMT-China’s first X-ray Astronomy Satellite / 关于中国第一颗硬X射线天文望远镜的基本介绍 (中科院高能物理研究所 – HXMT研发团队)
    点击此处下载(Size: 5.4MB)                   文件语言:英文
  2. Overview to the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (Insight-HXMT) Satellite / 硬X射线天文望远镜概况 (期刊论文)
    点击此处下载(Size: 3.1MB)                   文件语言:英文
  3. Status of the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (Insight HXMT) Project / 硬X射线调制望远镜目前状态(期刊论文 / 中科院高能物理研究所)
    点击此处下载(Size: 2.2MB)                     文件语言:英文
  4. The Insight-HXMT mission and its recent progress / 硬X射线调制望远镜的任务目标及近期科研成果(期刊论文)
    点击此处下载(Size: 2.5MB)                     文件语言:英文
  5. 硬 X 射线调制望远镜卫星及其科学目标 (期刊论文/中科院高能物理研究所)
    点击此处下载(Size: 11MB)                        文件语言:中文
  6. 硬X射线调制望远镜(HXMT)天文卫星的结构分析(期刊论文 / 中科院空间科学和与应用研究中心)
    点击此处下载(Size:1MB)                         文件语言:中文
  7. 硬X射线调制望远镜基本介绍(会议文件 / 中科院高能物理演技所)
    点击此处下载(Size: 3.5MB)                         文件语言:英文

最新的航天新闻和发射消息!