载人龙飞船整体介绍

载人龙飞船整体介绍

2019-

Crew Dragon  spacecraft)

Crew Dragon is a crewed space capsule designed by SpaceX to ferry crews to the International space station. It is based on the uncrewed Dragon supply capsule.

Under the Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) initiative’s base period, SpaceX will make the final modifications necessary to prepare Dragon to safely transport astronauts into space. These include:

  • seats for up to seven astronauts.
  • an advanced launch escape system with powered abort possibilities from launch pad to orbit.
  • A propulsive landing system for gentle ground touchdowns on legs with parachutes as back up.
  • different trunk with fins and body and fin mounted solar cells.
  • a docking system, protected by an open- and closeable nose cone
  • Refinements and rigorous testing of essential aspects of Dragon’s design, including life-support systems and an advanced cockpit design complete with modern human interfaces.

The propulsive landing system was discarded in 2017, but might be resurrected in later versions.

SpaceX will demonstrate that Dragon will be able to escape a launch-pad emergency by firing integrated SuperDraco engines to carry the spacecraft safely to the ocean. SpaceX will also conduct an in-flight abort test that allows Dragon to escape at the moment of maximum aerodynamic drag, again by firing the SuperDraco thrusters to carry the spacecraft a safe distance from the rocket. SpaceX expects to undertake its first crewed flight by early 2017.

In September 2014, SpaceX’s Crew Dragon was selected for the commercial crew program and received a funding of $2.6 billion.

The first two operational missions were ordered in November 2015 and July 2016.

The first uncrewed flight demonstration mission (DM-1) was launched in March 2019 and docked successfully with the ISS. After the successful return, the capsule was to be refurbished to fly again on the suborbital abort mission test flight, but was destroyed on 21 April 2019 during a ground test of the propulsion system.

两舱的载人“龙”飞船建立在SpaceX的货运“龙”飞船的基础上,但两者之间存在重大差异。载人“龙”飞船有7个座位(一般任务保留4个座位)、3个窗户(供航天员们欣赏沿途风景)、三个可显示飞船状态实时信息的触摸屏,另外内部温度控制在舒适宜人的18.3℃到26.7℃之间。

(对比阿波罗时代,航天飞机本世纪初升级后玻璃化驾驶舱与如今载人龙飞船的触摸屏,此前DM-2任务的两位航天飞机时代过来的航天员接受采访时着重表扬了载人龙飞船在操便捷作性与人机工效上面的跨时代进步)

此外,飞船还配备八个“超级天龙座”(SuperDraco)逃生引擎,可在发射出现紧急情况时使飞船脱离危险。

载人龙飞船基本数据:

货运版本

载人版本

高度 8.1m
直径 2.88m
净重 12.055kg
内部空间 9.3m³
最大搭乘人数 7,任务为4
设计寿命 3次以上
自由飞行 7天
空间站停靠飞行 不少于210天
航天爱好者网制表
  • Crew Dragon mass at ISS docking: 12,055 kg(飞船总重12.055吨)Crew Dragon total height: 8.1 meters(飞船长度:8.1米)
    Crew Dragon trunk section diameter: 3,66meters(非加压舱最大直径:3.66米)
  • Capsule diameter: ~2.88 meters(乘员舱最大直径:2.88米)
  • Falcon 9/Crew Dragon total height: 65.78meters(猎鹰9与飞船整合高度:65.78米)
  • Crew Dragon capacity: 7 astronauts- 4astronauts plus cargo for NASA missions(飞船具备运载4到7名航天员前往国际空间站并为NASA携带一定数量的货物)
  • Crew Dragon design life: At least 210 dayswhen docked to ISS(设计具备停泊空间站至少驻留210天的能力)

二代载人龙飞船的环评文件批露了它的部分性能参数,飞船空重16976磅(7.7吨),最多装有4885磅(2.2吨)的推进剂,其中包括3004磅(1363千克)的四氧化二氮和1881磅/853千克)的一甲基肼,飞船发射的典型重量在19840到33070磅(9吨到15吨)之间,载人运货时发射重量差距不大。


货运2代龙飞船基本情况,二代货运龙的特色在于临发射前装载(最迟可以到T-1h),快速交会对接(目前还没有实际使用),非加压上行能力扩增,低温上行货物翻倍(具体未知),溅落后快速开舱取货(最快在30min内)。

相较于载人龙飞船,货运版取消了逃逸使用的超级天龙发动机,非加压舱段取消一对飞翼。

NASA和SpX签的合同里是按照每次3.3t上行作为基准,对于上行运力的单次运量限制并不大。

不过,单次货运飞船任务的价格倒是比载人飞船价格更贵,并且是CRS-2合同里报价最贵的运输方。

【执行国际空间站的各型载人飞船对照】

(与现役实现载人的2种飞船同火箭的对照)

当今全球现役且执行了载人任务的三种载人飞船(图片从左至右取自联盟MS-16载人飞船,奋进号载人龙飞船, 神舟九号载人飞船)

(本次任务载人龙基本数据)

(载人龙飞船与老马自家航天员接送车Model X的对照)

(载人龙与现有国际空间站唯一服役的载人飞船联盟soyuz的对照)

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