四,“墨子”量子科学实验卫星 Quantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS)


 主题:“墨子”号量子科学实验卫星 Quantum Experiments at Space Scale 
简要目录:
4.1 研发背景(Background) 
4.2 研制单位(Developer and Manufacturer) 
4.3 目标任务(Satellite Mission) 
4.4 基本数据(Details) 
4.5 星上载荷(On-board Payload) 
4.6 卫星特点(Feature) 
4.7 科研成果(Achievement)
4.8 相关技术性文件(Related Documents) 
本文由Brace Bai, Boyuan Pan, Xianghui Chen整理及编写
4.1   研发背景(Background)

墨子号量子卫星2011年12月立项,是中科院空间科学先导专项首批科学实验卫星之一。工程还建设了包括南山、德令哈、兴隆、丽江4个量子通信地面站和阿里量子隐形传态实验站在内的地面科学应用系统,与量子卫星共同构成天地一体化量子科学实验系统。

QUESS is the fourth satellite mission in the framework of the Strategic Pioneer Research Program in Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

4.2   研制单位(Developer and Manufacturer)

量子卫星工程由中科院国家空间科学中心总负责;中国科学技术大学负责科学目标的提出和科学应用系统的研制;中科院上海微小卫星创新研究院抓总研制卫星系统,中科院上海技术物理研究所联合中科大研制有效载荷分系统;中科院国家空间科学中心牵头负责地面支撑系统研制、建设和运行;对地观测与数字地球科学中心等单位参加。

National Space Science Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is mainly in charge of this project, with the University of Science and Technology of China taking over the responsibility of establishing scientific goals and developing scientific application systems; Innovation Academy for Microsatellites, CAS is in charge of the development of the satellite system; Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, CAS is in charge of an effective Payloads sub-system and the National Space Science Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is responsible for the development, construction and operation of ground support systems with the supports from other units including Earth Observation and Digital Earth Science Center.

4.3   目标任务(Satellite Mission)

其主要科学目标一是借助卫星平台,进行星地高速量子密钥分发实验,并在此基础上进行广域量子密钥网络实验,以期在空间量子通信实用化方面取得重大突破;二是在空间尺度进行量子纠缠分发和量子隐形传态实验,开展空间尺度量子力学完备性检验的实验研究。

The scientific objectives of Quantum Experiments at Space Scale include:

  1. The implementation of long-distance quantum communication network based on high-speed Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) between the satellite and the ground station which would achieve major breakthroughs in the realization of space-based practical quantum communication;
  2. An investigation on the quantum entanglement distribution and quantum teleportation on space scale and fundamental tests of the laws of quantum mechanics on global scale.
4.4   基本数据(Details)

质量:640kg
轨道:500公里太阳同步轨道
设计寿命:2年
发射日期:2016年8月16日1时40分
发射地点:酒泉卫星发射中心
运载火箭:长征二号丁
交付日期:2017年1月18日
当前状态:超期服役

Mass at launch: 640kg
Orbit: Sun-synchronous orbit at 500km altitude
Designed Life: 2 years
Launch time: 2016-8-16 1:40 (UTC+8)
Launch site: Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Carrier rocket:  Long March 2D
Delivery date: 2017-1-18
Current Status: Operational, Extended service

4.5   星上载荷(On-board Payload)

量子纠缠发射机QET:将卫星上产生的量子密钥通过激光分发到地面上。
量子密钥通信机QKC:对星地量子密钥分发进行验证,进行星地量子通讯。
量子纠缠源QEPS:产生纠缠光子对。
量子实验控制与处理机QCP:通过量子纠缠和隐形传态实验对量子理论的完备性进行验证。

Quantum Entangled Transmitter: Transmit quantum key generated on the satellite to the ground by laser.
Quantum Key Communicator: Verify distribution of the star-ground quantum key, and do quantum communication between satellite and ground.
Quantum Entangled Photon Source: Produce quantum entangled photon couples.
Quantum Control Processor: Fundamental tests of the laws of quantum mechanics on global scale.

4.6 卫星特色(Features)

世界首颗量子科学实验卫星,在国际上首次成功实现从卫星到地面的量子密钥分发和从地面到卫星的量子隐形传态,领跑量子通信领域。

The world’s first quantum scientific experimental satellite successfully achieved quantum key distribution from satellite to ground and quantum teleportation from ground to satellite for the first time in the world, leading the field of quantum communication.

4.7   科研成果(Achievement)

2017 年6月16日,中国“墨子号”量子卫星在世界上首次实现千公里量级的量子纠缠,这意味着量子通信向实用迈出一大步。

2017 年8月12日,墨子号”取得最新成果——国际上首次成功实现千公里级的星地双向量子通信,为构建覆盖全球的量子保密通信网络奠定了坚实的科学和技术基础,至此,“墨子号”量子卫星提前、圆满地完成了预先设定的全部三大科学目标。

2017年9月29日,世界首条量子保密通信干线“京沪干线”与“墨子号”科学实验卫星进行天地链路,我国科学家成功实现了洲际量子保密通信。这标志着我国在全球已构建出首个天地一体化广域量子通信网络雏形,为未来实现覆盖全球的量子保密通信网络迈出了坚实的一步。

2018年1月,在中国和奥地利之间首次实现距离达7600公里的洲际量子密钥分发,并利用共享密钥实现加密数据传输和视频通信。该成果标志着“墨子号”已具备实现洲际量子保密通信的能力。

2019年1月31日,美国科学促进会宣布,中国科学技术大学潘建伟教授领衔的“墨子号”量子科学实验卫星科研团队被授予2018年度克利夫兰奖,以表彰该团队通过实现千公里级星地双向量子纠缠分发推动大尺度量子通信实验研究做出的贡献。

On June 16, 2017, QUESS achieved quantum entanglement on the order of thousands of kilometers for the first time in the world, which means that quantum communication has taken a big step toward practicality.

On August 12, 2017, QUESS obtained the latest Achievement: the first successful international implementation of a thousand kilometers of star-ground two-way quantum communication, which laid a solid scientific and technical foundation for the construction of a global quantum confidential communication network. And successfully completed all three preset scientific goals.

On September 29, 2017, the world’s first quantum secret communication trunk line “Beijing-Shanghai Main Line” was linked to QUESS, and Chinese scientists have successfully achieved intercontinental quantum secret communication. This indicates that China has built the first prototype of the world-wide integrated

wide-area quantum communication network, and has taken a solid step towards the realization of a quantum secure communication network covering the whole world in the future.

In January 2018, the first intercontinental quantum key distribution with a distance of 7600 kilometers was realized between China and Austria, and the shared key was used to achieve encrypted data transmission and video communication. The Achievement marks that QUESS has the ability to realize intercontinental quantum secret communication.

On January 31, 2019, the American Association for the Advancement of Science

announced that the QUESS quantum science experimental satellite scientific research team led by Professor Pan Jianwei of the University of Science and Technology of China was awarded the 2018 Cleveland Prize in recognition of the team ’s achievement of two-way quantum entanglement distribution of thousands of kilometers of stars and earth Promote the contributions of large-scale quantum communication experimental research.

4.8 相关技术性文件(Related Documents)

(1) QUESS Operations at Chinese Space Science Mission Center

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