载人龙飞船——载人龙进度官方汇总【12月14日】

【2018年12月13日】
发射前状态汇总,英文很简单,我就不翻译了:
Launch dates
January 7: DM-1

June: DM-2 (with crew)

Accomplishments

Dragon/Crew
Draco/SuperDraco validation testing at McGregor
Structural Qualification
Completed docking system tests
Five parachute tests completed this year
Spacesuit qualification

Falcon 9
Completed Vehicle Integration Review agreement for Block 5 configuration for human rating
Merlin 1D and MVAC qualification completed
Flight Software certification for Demo-1 approaching completion
Qualification Test Reports of Crew Dragon and Falcon 9 hardware have been delivered for NASA review/approval
Completed all Demo 1 Joint SpaceX-NASA tests for software, docking, communications, equipment interface, and capsule environments

DM-1 Vehicle Status
EMI, Tvac, and Acoustic tests completed successfully
Capsule delivered to Cape and in final processing
Heatshield mate complete
Trunk solar array integration and proof loading complete
Completed main and drogue parachute installation
Completed interior closeout inspections
Nose cone delivered to KSC and installed

DM-2 Vehicle Status
Started build on seats
Completed all vehicle welds
Pressure to Service section integration complete
Ongoing vehicle integration in cleanroom
Trunk primary structure complete
Avionics Bay, components, and harnesses installed
6/8 SuperDracos fired at McGregor

Crew-1 Vehicle Status
Capsule through mechanical assembly and structural ATP
Crew-1 capsule has completed ATP testing and is undergoing post-test inspections
(What’s that mean?)
Prop Fluid Bench Welding has started and Radial Bulkheads have been delivered to the cleanroom

Pad 39A Status

Successful Crew Arm Seal testing
Launch Site Operational Readiness Review complete

SpaceX Operations Status
Completed final Flight Operational Reviews
Finalized CCP Mission Support architecture and console support requirements for the Un-Crewed Flight Tests
Developed the CCP Mission Support Team Training Plan
Initiated training for Mission Support Team conducting Joint Simulations, Mission Management Team Simulations
Successful dry-run of Day of Launch Closeout Crew Procedures with representative crew members, spacesuits and transportation vehicle
Spacecraft recovery vessel currently in sea trials for Demo-1

【2018年12月08日】
载人龙Demo-1新日期公布,1月17日,主要还是NASA的要求。
NASA and SpaceX have agreed to move the target launch date of the uncrewed Demo-1 flight test to the International Space Station. SpaceX coordinated with the Eastern Range for a launch on Thursday, Jan 17. This adjustment allows the return of the Dragon spacecraft from the company’s 16th commercial resupply services mission. SpaceX’s Demo-1 will provide key data associated with the ground, integrated rocket and spacecraft, and autonomous docking systems, and the landing profile ahead of the company’s flight test with astronauts, known as Demo-2.

“We still have more work to do as the certification process, hardware development and readiness reviews continue,” said Kathy Lueders, manager of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program. “The key readiness reviews along with NASA’s continued analysis of hardware and software testing and certification data must be closed out prior to launch. The upcoming steps before the test missions are critical, and their importance can’t be understated. We are not driven by dates, but by data. Ultimately, we’ll fly SpaceX Demo-1 at the right time, so we get the right data back to support the in-flight abort test and the next test flight when our astronauts are aboard. However, the fact we’re coordinating target dates with the Eastern Range is a great example of the real progress we’re making with commercial crew and how close we are to actually flying American spacecraft and rockets from American soil again.”

【2018年12月07日】

【载人龙的新生意】NASA考虑向太空游客出售坐票 搭乘国际空间站飞船

【2018年12月02日】

用于Demo1任务的龙飞船已经准备完毕,但是目前Demo-1任务时间极有可能推迟,因为NASA新任局长公开批评了马斯克在公开场合吸食大麻及饮酒的行为,并声称要对SpaceX进行一系列调查,Demo-1任务将很有可能推迟到2019年1季度。而波音在发射台逃逸实验没完成的前提下,正在飞速追赶进度,力争2019年3月首飞。
【2018年11月28日】
发射台逃逸试验的环评报告草稿曝光,有以下亮点:(网友9m96e2总结)
使用一枚完整的一级和一个不带发动机与GNC的二级进行in-flight abort test,在Max-Q附近火箭将接受指令关机,Dragon 2检测到推力终止后自动逃逸,火箭在气动力作用下解体
另外火箭会多携带液氧以减少煤油对海面的污染
报告链接地址:Draft_EA_for_SpaceX_In-flight_Dragon_Abort_508

【2018年11月22日】
NASA官方公布了载人龙飞船首飞时间,这一天终于来到了。

还有CCP项目下其他节点的计划表:
Test Flight Planning Dates:
Boeing Orbital Flight Test (uncrewed): March 2019
Boeing Pad Abort Test: Between OFT and CFT
Boeing Crew Flight Test (crewed): August 2019
SpaceX Demo-1 (uncrewed): January 7, 2019
SpaceX In-Flight Abort Test: Between Demo-1 and Demo-2
SpaceX Demo-2 (crewed): June 2019

【2018年11月12日】
即将在明年执行首次载人发射的航天员正在SpaceX载人龙飞船Mockup内部进行界面交互测试,可以详细看到整个载人龙飞船夺人眼球的超大触控界面,老马的企业无论是SpaceX还是Telsa,一直都是超大触控屏幕开道!

【2018年11月07日】
SpaceX已经在龙飞船回收船上增设了一个直升机停机坪,用于未来载人龙飞船回收后航天员如果需要紧急送医时能够及时送往陆地医院。

【2018年10月26日】
根据FCC文件显示,DEMO-1载人龙飞船首飞任务为海上回收,发射最早时间为12月10日。发射台为LC-39A
1829-EX-ST-2018 Launch from 39A NET Dec. 10, 2018
1831-EX-ST-2018 ASDS Landing
North  31  43  23   West  76  58  47

【2018年10月22日】

SpaceX正在对LC-39A的FSS进行涂装,争取颜色统一成白色。

【2018年10月14日】

由于受到NASA的“Paper Work”的影响,CCP载人发射出现推迟,新时间表如下:

目前考虑MS-10事故的影响,即使联盟能在12月底前恢复发射,NASA的麻烦也远没有结束。俄罗斯更有可能把原计划今年12月20日发射的载人联盟飞船改为无人飞船,当作火箭复飞测试的同时替代MS-09(还未确定),但这也意味着现在国际空间站上的三名成员要延长原计划半年的驻留时间到至少9个月,进一步打乱宇航员时间安排且更加滞后早已因人员不足而积压无数科学实验。当然还有一种可能是加速龙2飞船的测试让Demo-1无人任务能在今年12月发射,无人的龙2飞船在紧急情况下可以担当国际空间站的救生舱(Life Boat)。不过鉴于NASA对商业轨道运输计划中载人的严要求,这估计不太可能实现。

【2018年9月12日】

商业载人航天项目最新介绍视频

【2018年9月6日】
SpaceX的抠门新办法——新飞船载人,旧飞船运货,首先大家都知道,二代龙飞船是人、货通用设计,装上座椅运人,拆掉座椅运货。而据Teslarati报道,SpaceX拟采用全新制造的飞船和火箭为NASA运送航天员,在飞船和火箭完成回收后进行翻修的简单改装,然后用二手火箭+二手飞船为NASA执行无人货运任务,相对于竞争对手轨道ATK(现在的诺格)和内华达山脉公司,这将大幅降低CRS-2阶段货运任务的成本,抹平CRS-1到CRS-2合同的预算增额。

【2018年8月29日】
特斯拉Model X将运送首批SpaceX载人龙飞船的宇航员前往发射台(示意图)

【2018年8月28日】

NASA顾问委员会2018-08-27会议上公佈的SpaceX 最新進展

【2018年8月25日】

航天员登上载人龙飞船所用的登船摆臂安装完成。这个摆臂有4英呎宽,8英呎高,85英呎长,距离海平面265英呎高,比航天飞机的登船摆臂还高70英呎。摆臂大部分为钢制,加上铝制组件。

【2018年8月20日】

航天员登上载人龙飞船所用的登船摆臂正在进一步安装

【2018年8月18日】
登船流程曝光
Additional verification and demonstration activities, which include five crew loading demonstrations of the Falcon 9 Block 5, will be critical to final certification of this plan. These loading demonstrations will verify the flight crew configuration and crew loading timeline prior to Demo-2. After these conditions have been met, NASA will assess any remaining risk before determining that the system is certified to fly with crew.

If all goes according to plan, on launch day, the Falcon 9 composite overwrap pressure vessels, known as COPVs, will be loaded with helium and verified to be in a stable configuration prior to astronaut arrival at the launch pad. The astronauts then will board the spacecraft about two hours before launch, when the launch system is in a quiescent state. After the ground crews depart the launch pad, the launch escape systems will be activated approximately 38 minutes before liftoff, just before fueling begins. SpaceX launch controllers then will begin loading rocket grade kerosene and densified liquid oxygen approximately 35 minutes before launch. The countdown and launch preparations can be stopped automatically up to the last moment before launch. In the unlikely event of an emergency at any point up to and after launch, the launch escape systems will allow the astronauts to evacuate safely.

中文机翻:

额外的验证和演示活动,包括Falcon 9 Block 5的五次船员装载演示,对于该计划的最终认证至关重要。这些装载演示将在Demo-2之前验证飞行机组配置和机组装载时间线。在满足这些条件后,NASA将在确定系统被认证与机组人员一起飞行之前评估任何剩余风险。

如果一切按计划进行,在发射当天,Falcon 9复合外包装压力容器(称为COPV)将装载氦气,并在宇航员到达发射台之前验证其处于稳定状态。然后,当发射系统处于静止状态时,宇航员将在发射前约两小时登上宇宙飞船。在地勤人员离开发射台后,发射逃生系统将在升空前大约38分钟启动,就在加油开始之前。然后,SpaceX发射控制器将在发射前约35分钟开始装载火箭级煤油和致密液态氧。倒计时和发射准备工作可以在发射前的最后一刻自动停止。在发射前后任何时候发生紧急情况的情况下,发射逃生系统将允许宇航员安全撤离。

【2018年8月17日】
登船臂大图

载人龙飞船操控界面详细图,据记者称整个飞船操作界面只有38个按钮。


【2018年8月16日】
航天员登上载人龙飞船所用的登船摆臂正在起吊安装,话说这玩意设计的这么科幻。。。安装在阿波罗时期风格的发射塔上好违和。

【2018年8月15日】


【2018年8月13日】
据彭博社报道,NASA正式批准了SpaceX的载人龙飞船采用“先上船,再加油”的方式进行发射,以往载人飞船大多是在推进剂加注完成后航天员才登上飞船。而SpaceX在2016年的一次推进剂加注过程中突发爆炸,星箭具毁,NASA担心类似情况再次发生会危及已经登船的航天员,但SpaceX认为飞船的逃逸系统有能力将航天员及时带离爆炸范围,双方为此扯皮不断,最终NASA屈服。

【2018年8月10日】

DEMO-1任务用飞船进场。

【2018年8月2日】

波音载人飞船逃逸试验推进剂泄露事故发生后,官方已将首次载人发射时间推迟至2019年中旬,并不排除继续推迟。逃逸系统采用洛克达因RS-88发动机。至此,SpaceX和波音两家明争暗斗多年的的商业载人航天大战结果基本出炉,SpaceX以压倒性的进度优势将在最快9月份进行首次无人发射,预计明年初进行首次载人发射。

【2018年6月23日】

To me this confirms SpaceX are ahead on commercial crew program and will probably launch crew first.
NASA认为CCP载人计划上SpaceX领先
波音的二号船正准备运往加利福尼亚开始环境测试,并最终运回作为首艘载人星际线飞船。
环境测试包含有热、真空、电磁试验,SpaceX的载人龙已经完成了电磁测试,热也可能已经完成。
波音的一号船正在准备进行发射台逃逸实验,SpaceX的发射台逃逸实验2015年5月已经完成。

【2018年5月24日】
老马公布了正在进行EMI测试的载人龙飞船。SpaceNews新闻表示NASA认为先上人再进行燃料加注在安全上是可以接受的。

【2018年5月19日】

NASA正在mockup中实际测试载人龙飞船

【2018年5月15日】
但外界普遍怀疑两家公司能如期进行飞行测试,预计载人飞行测试将推迟到2019年。美国政府问责局今年1月警告称,SpaceX可能要到2019年12月才能获得NASA向国际空间站运送航天员的资格认证,波音获得资格认证的时间更是可能会推迟到2020年2月。鉴于NASA与俄罗斯太空总署利用联盟号飞船运送航天员的合同将于2019年9月结束,NASA需要未雨绸缪。NASA今年早些时候表示,它计划使载人飞行测试执行向国际空间站运送航天员的任务,飞船在国际空间站的停靠时间将由数周延长至数月。

发一下地址,作为备份记录:
https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ast/environmental/nepa_docs/review/launch/media/draft-EA_SpaceX-Dragon-Gulf-Landing.pdf

龙2空重16976磅/7.7吨
Dragon-2 weighs
approximately 16,976 pounds without cargo, with a height of approximately 2,317 feet (including the
trunk) and a base width of 13 feet. Each pair of SuperDraco engines (eight total engines) are mounted to
a monolithic aluminum bracket. This bracket is connected to the pressure vessel with three mounts in a
minimally constrained fashion.

龙2装有16台龙和8台超龙发动机
There are 18 Draco RCS engines and 8 SuperDraco LAS engines
(two in each for the four modules) on the Dragon-1. There are 16 Draco RCS engines and 8 SuperDraco
LAS engines (two in each of the four modules) on Dragon-2.

龙2最多装有4885磅/2.2吨推进剂,其中包括3004磅/1363千克NTO和1881磅/853千克的MMH
The Dragon-2
could contain up to 4,885 pounds of propellant which includes 3,004 pounds of NTO and 1,881 pounds
of MMH.
龙和龙2的典型重量在19840和33070磅之间(9吨到15吨),载人和货运龙2的重量区别不大
Dragon would typically weigh between 19,840 and 33,070 pounds
based on the mission specific profile. Dragon-2 would also have the capability of returning astronauts to
Earth. The weight differential between a cargo and crew mission would be negligible

2018年4月13日进度:

Moreover, the avionics bay for the DM-1 Dragon is fully populated and is going through checkouts.  All cabin support equipment and propulsion components are installed. Final installation is also underway on the ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) as well as the oxygen and nitrox delivery panels.

As far as the crew dragons ability to generate its own power, 120 of the 240 solar arrays have been completed and are in the process of being installed onto the DM-1 vehicle.  Overall, the docking system build for DM-1 is 90% complete and underwent testing at the Johnson Space Center prior to being installed on the vehicle for flight.

At this point, the crew Dragon for DM-1 will be shipped to Plum Brook Station for environmental testing at the end of May.