Atlas 5 • Mars 2020 • NASA新一代火星车前往火星 · 发射成功

When:
2020年7月30日 @ 19:50
2020-07-30T19:50:00+08:00
2020-07-30T20:05:00+08:00
Where:
美国佛州卡纳维拉尔角 SLC-41发射台



地点:美国佛州卡纳维拉尔角 SLC-41发射台
火箭:Atlas 5 541
载荷:Mars 2020(“毅力号”火星车)
客户:NASA
重量:发射重量约为3898kg,火星车质量约1050kg。
轨道:地火转移轨道(日心轨道)

发射回放:

时间线:

文件资料:
(1) Mars 2020 Mission Overview
(2) MARS 2020 MISSION – Science Rover
(3) Mars 2020 Entry, Descent, and Landing Update (June 2018)
全面介绍:

火星车,试验场所

任务概述:

NASA迄今为止已经发射和计划发射的火星任务,而在Mars2020进入工作状态以后, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter等卫星将继续充当中继卫星。

Mars2020的任务流程与好奇号相似,计划使用Atlas5 541构型火箭(5米整流罩,4个助推器,1个二级发动机)发射升空。升空后预计经过7个月的飞行,并最终在2021年二月着陆火星。

载入过程:

毅力号的入轨结构可以大致分为五个部分,第一部分称为Cruise Stage,负责地火巡航段中的供电以及变轨操作,确保火星车能够顺利进入火星轨道。如下图所示:
在Cruise Stage分离后,火星车整体进入火星大气减速段,此阶段主要通过AeroShell和HeatShield部分包裹火星车整体,为其提供保护。随后,在进入火星大气的260秒之后,位于AeroShell顶部的降落伞展开,为其提供进一步减速辅助。20秒后,HeatShield(隔热层)分离,火星车开始使用雷达对火星表面进行扫描。进入火星大气的380秒后,此时的高度距离火星表面约2公里左右,速度约在80~100米每秒,AeroShell(也就是携带降落伞的部分)与火星车分离,释放出Decend Stage(也称空中起重机),辅助火星车进行最终的动力着陆操作,并将速度控制在0.75米每秒。在进入火星大气到最终的火星车着陆,过程大约在430秒左右。同时,空中起重机在辅助火星车着陆之后,也将飞远并坠毁到不影响任务的地方。

计算机控制系统:

毅力号上的计算机模组包含两个相同的计算模块,互为备份,其被称为RCE(Rover Compute Element) RCE通过两个接口控制火星车的整体操作,其均遵循专门为飞机和航天器的高可靠性要求而设计的航空工业标准制造。此外,RCE还用于控制所有火星车舰载仪器的接口,以交换命令和科学数据。

RCE采用IBM PowerPC 750架构的抗辐射中央处理器:BAE RAD750,此处理器运行速度在200MHz,约十倍于勇气号和机遇号火星车所搭载的中央处理器。

RCE一共搭配了2GB的内存,同样此容量约为勇气号和机遇号所搭载的八倍之多,同时还有256MB的动态随机存取储存器,256KB的电可擦除可编程只读存储器

携带载荷:
  • (1)桅杆变焦相机系统(Mastcam-Z);
  • (2)超级相机(SuperCam);
  • (3)X射线岩石化学行星仪器(PIXL);
  • (4)紫外拉曼光谱仪(SHERLOC);
  • (5)火星氧气就地资源利用实验模块(MOXIE);
  • (6)火星环境动态分析仪(MEDA);
  • (7)火星地下实验雷达成像仪(RIMFAX)

动态:
【2020年07月30日】今天准时发射,57分钟后器箭分离,发射成功,超级热烈祝贺毅力号火星车发射圆满成功!
【2020年07月15日】经过精细调整轨道,发射窗口可以延长到8月15日。
【2020年07月10日】NASA消息,预计7月30日19时50分发射。
【2020年07月02日】由于火箭原因,不早于7月30日发射(美东时间)
【2020年06月25日】在将飞船装入整流罩时发现一个地面支援系统问题,发射推迟到不早于7月22日21时35分。
【2020年06月11日】由于发现异常,ULA中断准备工作三天,发射推迟到不早于7月20日21时15分。
【2019年05月22日】经火箭性能裕度分析,本次任务窗口可以延长6天,新的窗口时间是7月17日到8月11日。
【2019年03月06日】NASA消息,发射窗口为2020年7月17日到8月5日,预计2021年2月18日登陆火星。
【2018年03月17日】添加此次任务。

任务图片:

是的你没看错!!这次任务的Atlas一级居然是An-124拉过来的

A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard is seen as it is rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard is seen as it is rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine, right, and Tory Bruno, president and CEO of United Launch Alliance, take a selfie with the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard as it rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
Thomas Zurbuchen, Associate Administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, left, is seen with Tory Bruno, president and CEO of United Launch Alliance, after the rollout of a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover to the launch pad at Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard is seen on the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
Thomas Zurbuchen, Associate Administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, left, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine, and Tory Bruno, president and CEO of United Launch Alliance, are seen before the rollout of a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine, right, and Tory Bruno, president and CEO of United Launch Alliance, are seen as a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard is rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard is seen as it is rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard is seen as it is rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine, left, and Tory Bruno, president and CEO of United Launch Alliance, are seen as they watch a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard as it is rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard is seen as it is rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard is seen as it is rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41, Tuesday, July 28, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled for Thursday, July 30. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)
Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

《Atlas 5 • Mars 2020 • NASA新一代火星车前往火星 · 发射成功》上的3个想法

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