Falcon 9 • 第9批Starlink组网发射 • 压榨整流罩容积!搭载3颗撒土豆公司的“天星”卫星 · 首次取消静态点火 · 发射成功

When:
2020年6月13日 @ 17:21
2020-06-13T17:21:00+08:00
2020-06-13T17:36:00+08:00


地点:卡纳维拉尔角空军基地SLC-40发射台
火箭:Falcon 9
载荷:58颗星链组网卫星(Starlink)+ 3颗SkySats C(天星C型)16-18地面成像卫星(没错,就是找阿三丢104星鸽子土豆的那家公司
质量:星链单星260kg,天星C型单星120kg
客户:SpaceX
轨道:LEO
芯级:B1059.3
回收:海上回收,目前计划为OCISLY回收船

顺风车土豆搭载星相关介绍:

(天星C型地面成像星实物)

本次任务中火箭除了搭载日常组网的星链,还将搭载3颗天星C型地面成像卫星。本次搭载组网任务将是行星实验公司(Terra Bella)的第16到18颗天星卫星。天星C型卫星由美国谷歌公司旗下的私营企业美国行星实验公司采用英国萨瑞卫星技术公司的SSTL-50平台委托并英国萨瑞卫星技术公司和劳拉空间系统公司制造的微型地球观测成像卫星。卫星总重120kg,平台标准为寿命6年,卫星采用一台1N的ADN基高性能绿色推进剂(HPGP)作为姿态与变轨动力,电力采用太阳能电池板供电。顺风车卫星的适配器则由航天技术公司:MaxarTechnologies(MAXR)制造。

行星公司现有15颗“天星”卫星在用。这些遥感卫星采集高分图像,让该公司能够参与国家安全市场角逐。再部署6颗新卫星将会提升“天星”星座的覆盖能力。新卫星拟部署到更低的轨道上,从而让行星公司能够借助“天星”星座来提供50厘米分辨率的图像。该公司在用老旧“天星”卫星的图像分辨率为72厘米。

“天星”1~15工作在太阳同步轨道上。行星公司称,“天星”16~21将400KM,53度倾角的“中等倾角”轨道(与星链分离后卫星自己爬升到预定轨道),从而与太阳同步轨道形成互补。该公司称,这些新卫星“将为关键地理区域带来更具针对性的覆盖、快速重访和原始图像能力”。

(天星1,2号原型星)

此前的十五颗卫星中的有2颗为原型验证星天星1,2分别于2013年11月21日和2014年8月07日分别由第聂伯火箭(SS-18改)和联盟2.1b火箭送入太空,之后的卫星更换了制造商,更换更大的平台与先进的观测设备后从83KG升到120KG,之后分别由印度PSLV-XL,诺格创新公司的金牛座-3210型(现改名为米洛陶C-XL-3210),欧洲织女星火箭与猎鹰9 Block-5 B.1046.3号火箭于16-18年底发射升空。

(天星C3-27号组网星)

本次任务为猎鹰9火箭第二次发射这种地面成像卫星。第一次发射 的2颗星由今年年初IFA测试“烟花”的B.1046.4号火箭于18年12月03日在范登堡基地完成1046芯级的第三次的撒土豆发射。其接下来的6颗“天星”卫星将随太空探索公司今夏由“星链”组网发射任务发往低地轨道。这6颗卫星将作为拼单载荷分两次上天,每次3颗。前3颗,即“天星”16~18,将随拟在6月份进行的第9次“星链”发射任务升空,而另3颗,即“天星”19~21,则将在随后发射(“天星”卫星单星重约120公斤——译注)。两次发射都将在佛罗里达州卡纳维拉尔角太空军站进行。这6颗卫星发射后还有6颗组网卫星,不过这6颗卫星暂时没有确定发射时间与发射服务商。不过行星实验公司与维珍航天公司接触后有意向使用其刚刚首射失利的空射火箭完成其组网方式,至于是否也会和oneweb一样改用其他公司的商业火箭,还得继续观察。

卫星的东家,美国【行星实验公司】英文名:Terra Bella(原名:Skybox Imaging),是一家成立于旧金山的民营航天企业,其成立于 2009年,是一家为企业提供高清卫星图片的卫星图像公司,于 2014年 被 Google 以 5 亿美元收购。

彼时该公司主要靠开发小型卫星来拍摄高清的地形地貌,然后为企业提供人均分布情况、购物习惯等分析服务。业界认为 Google 收购 Skybox 的动机一方面在于继续将这些卫星图片商用化,此外还可用于改进 Google Map 甚至 Project Loon 这样的项目。

Terra Bella 正在开展广泛合作,利用地理空间数据来源、机器学习能力以及专家知识将裸图像转化为提供知情决策的数据,预计会在未来推出不仅仅依赖于卫星的新产品。(然后近些年来以印度104星撒土豆为代表的多款地面成像卫星都是该公司产品的杰作,当然该公司也惨,其鸽子卫星组网中多颗卫星在第聂伯火箭,安塔瑞斯火箭和猎鹰9火箭CRS-7任务中化为烟花。就鸽子卫星组网而言,其和电子号火箭方签订了3次发射64颗的发射合同,前14颗将于今年发射,之后每次25颗

土豆星英文介绍:

SkySat-3 to 21 (SkySat C1 to C19) are commercial Earth observation satellites by Skybox Imaging, licensed to collect high resolution panchromatic and multispectral images of the earth. The satellites operate in a polar inclined, circular orbit at approximately 450 km above the earth.

Skybox becomes only the fifth organization licensed to provide high resolution space-based imagery of Earth.

The first two prototype satellites were built by Skybox Imaging in house. The first satellite was launched in 2013 on a cluster launch on a Dnepr rocket. The second identical satellite was launched as a secondary payload on a Soyuz-2-1b Fregat-M launch in 2014.

Each SkySat satellite is equipped with a Ritchey-Chretien Cassegrain telescope with a focal length of 3.6 m, and a focal plane consisting of three 5.5 Mpixel CMOS imaging detectors. SkySat-1 and -2 use 3 CMOS frame detectors with a size of 2560 × 2160 pixels and a pixel size of 6.5 µm. The operational satellites have a higher resolution detector. The upper half of the detector is used for panchromatic capture, the lower half is divided into 4 stripes covered with blue, green, red and near infra-red color filters. The native resolution at nadir of the SkySat-1 and SkySat C is around 1.1 m. Further satellites will be placed in lower orbits, leading to increased image resolution.

Thirteen more operational satellites are being built by SS/Loral using a Skybox-licensed design, featuring a modular propuslion system. ECAPS will provide the complete High Performance Green Propulsion (HPGP) systems. Additionally, these will feture better reaction wheels for more agility. This series is about 15 cm taller and 30 kg heavier than the first two prototypes.

One of these satellites will launch in mid 2015 on an Indian PSLV-XL rocket. For more will be launched in mid 2016 on an Arianespace Vega launch vehicle. Six more will be launched on an Orbital designed Minotaur-C-3210 rocket in early 2017. The final two of this batch are to be launched on Spaceflight Industry’s SSO-A multi-satellite launch on a Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5) rocket.

Another batch of six was be ordered in January 2016. For later launches, Skybox reportedly has an agreement with Virgin Galactic to use the LauncherOne rocket. Three of these satellites will be launched as secondary payloads on a Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5) in June 2020, and three more later in 2020 also on a Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5).

Google announced in March 2016 that Skybox Imaging had changed its name to Terra Bella.


5月份国外媒体报道,并介绍了SpaceX的拼车服务:Three of Planet’s commercial SkySat Earth-imaging spacecraft will ride to space on top of a stack of SpaceX Starlink satellites next month aboard a Falcon 9 rocket, and three more will hitch a ride on another SpaceX mission later this summer.

Planet announced the rideshare launch agreement with SpaceX on Wednesday, confirming plans to launch six satellites on two previously-scheduled Falcon 9 missions carrying more of SpaceX’s Starlink broadband satellites into orbit.

The first three SkySat satellites will fly into orbit on SpaceX’s dedicated ninth Starlink mission planned for launch from Cape Canaveral some time in June, Planet said. Three more SkySat spacecraft will launch on a Starlink mission later this summer.

Mike Safyan, vice president of launch for San Francisco-based Planet, said the SkySat satellites will be mounted at the very top of the stack of Starlink payloads inside the fairing on each Falcon 9 flight. The SkySats will attach to the Starlink stack using a custom adapter.

Built by Maxar, each of the SkySat satellites weighs around 242 pounds (110 kilograms) at launch. The SkySats are about the side of a mini-refrigerator, and their optical instruments produce images of Earth with a resolution of less than 2.4 feet, or about 72 centimeters, according to Planet.

With somewhere between 100 and 150 Earth-imaging spacecraft in its fleet, Planet operates the world’s second-largest constellation of commercial satellites after SpaceX’s Starlink Internet network. Planet’s fleet includes Dove CubeSats designed for quick-response imaging, and 15 SkySats to capture sharper views of Earth.

The first 15 SkySat satellites launched into polar sun-synchronous orbits and fly in in north-south paths around Earth. Sun-synchronous orbits are popular for remote sensing and environmental satellites because they allow regular imaging of the Earth’s surface with the sun at the same angle.

“About half of the SkySats currently pass overhead in a morning crossing plane, while the other half moves in an afternoon crossing plane, so together they provide twice-daily coverage of select areas on a global scale,” Safyan wrote on Planet’s website. “SkySats 16-21 will operate at a ‘mid-inclination’ orbit of 53 degrees, complementing the sun-synchronous fleet, and will offer more targeted coverage and raw image capacity in key geographic regions.”

Starlink satellites fly in the same type of orbit at an inclination of 53 degrees. Safyan told Spaceflight Now the SkySats will use their own propulsion to maneuver from the Starlink injection orbit to an operating altitude of around 250 miles (400 kilometers).

The first 15 SkySats have launched on a range of rockets, riding a Ukrainian-Russian Dnepr booster in 2013, a Russian Soyuz launcher in 2014, an Indian PSLV and a European Vega rocket in 2016, Northrop Grumman’s Minotaur-C rocket in 2017, and a Falcon 9 mission in 2018.

SpaceX is selling capacity on Starlink launches to other companies who want to book rides for small satellites, offering an online booking system for prospective customers. SpaceX says launch prices for a rideshare payload of up to 440 pounds, or 200 kilograms, start at $1 million.

In addition to selling excess room on Starlink missions, SpaceX is planning as many as three dedicated Falcon 9 rideshare launches per year to sun-synchronous orbit. The first of the company’s dedicated rideshare missions is scheduled for December from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.

The rideshare launches are similar to a sun-synchronous orbit multi-satellite launch from Vandenberg on a Falcon 9 rocket in December 2018. But that mission was managed by Spaceflight, a rideshare launch broker based in Seattle, which purchased the entire capacity of a Falcon 9 rocket and sold slots to commercial and government customers.

Now SpaceX itself is putting together rideshare launches, selling slots directly to satellite operators and brokers that then distribute mass and volume allotments to their customers.

The majority of SpaceX’s launches this year will add satellites to the Starlink fleet, which is designed to beam broadband Internet service to consumers around the world. The first phase of the Starlink network will include 1,584 satellites in low Earth orbit, but SpaceX eventually plans to launch thousands more on dozens of Falcon 9 missions.

The flat-panel Starlink satellites launch in a stack inside the Falcon 9 rocket’s payload fairing. Each Starlink craft weighs more than a quarter ton, and a load of 60 of the satellites weighs more than 34,000 pounds (15.6 metric tons).

Gwynne Shotwell, SpaceX’s president and chief operating officer, said in December that she hopes to book rideshare payloads on all of the company’s Starlink launches. If necessary, SpaceX could reduce the number of Starlink satellites on a particular launch to accommodate a secondary payload.

“You can take a satellite off, or if it’s super tiny, you can just put it on the top,” Shotwell said.

动态
【2020年06月13日】今天准时发射成功,成功取消了静态点火,提高了效率;此次任务也创了同一工位最短间隔发射纪录。
【2020年06月11日】推迟一天到6月13日17点21分发射。此次发射”可能”不进行静态点火就直接发射。
【2020年06月09日】外媒消息,发射时间为6月12日17点42分,目前天气预报80%可以以发射。
【2020年06月06日】根据更新的通告推算,发射时间大约在6月12日下午17时49分左右。具体发射时间待定。
【2020年06月05日】根据通告,发射时间大约在6月13日早上08时45分左右,备用发射日期为6月14日。
【2020年05月13日】Planet将在Starlink任务中搭载发射6 颗SkySats小卫星,其中3颗将在本次任务中发射,预计6月发射。
【2019年12月24日】根据全年计划,暂定5月底。

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