Soyuz 2.1a • Progress МS-12(73P)货运飞船 • 国际空间站补给任务 • 3小时19分快速对接ISS • 发射成功

2019年7月31日 @ 20:10

地点:哈萨克斯坦拜科努尔航天发射场 LC-31/6
火箭:Soyuz-2.1a(第1905枚 R-7系列运载火箭)
载荷:进步号 MS-12货运飞船(73P)
轨道:LEO/ISS(国际空间站International Space Station


1 44455U 19047A 19212.52733744 -.00003812 12052-4 00000+0 0 9991
2 44455 51.6535 141.3903 0025082 64.7773 98.2562 16.26634932 05
1 44456U 19047B 19212.52931777 -.00003803 12022-4 00000+0 0 9995
2 44456 51.6594 141.2990 0032510 77.7105 96.9132 16.25264981 03


毛子的第442艘进步货船,将为远征59/60队提供物资补给与相关实验设备。本次任务采用对接方式待定。Progress MS-12航天器将向国际空囘站运送大约2450千克的货物和其它物资。货运飞船将提供食物,常温推进燃料和其他物资,包括705千克推进剂,50千克加压空气与420千克水。


The Progress-MS is a unmanned freighter based on the Progress-M-M featuring improved avionics.

The new version features the upgraded Kurs-NA rendezvous system, featuring the AO-753A antenna replaced the earlier 2AO-VKA antenna and three AKR-VKA antennas, while two older 2ASF-M-VKA antennas are retained. Kurs-NA will increase the reliability and safety during docking operations. The new SUD flight control system allows for autonomous trajectory measurements using the GLONASS (Uragan) navigation satellites. The communications system is also upgraded to use the Luch-5 data relay satellites. Also improvements were made to the micrometeoroid protection, the lighting system and the docking port. Finally, beginning with the third flight, Progress-MS can optionally carry four CubeSat deployers for a total of 24 CubeSat-units.

An automated version of Soyuz, known as Progress, was developed to carry propellant and cargo to the Salyut and Mir space stations and it will serve the same purpose for the International Space Station (ISS). Although the Mir and ISS have their own propulsion systems, generally it is the Progress vehicle which will perform periodic reboosting maneuvers to maintain the Space Station orbital altitude. The Progress is approximately the same size as the Soyuz but it has a slightly higher mass at launch of approximately 7150 kg. The Progress spacecraft docks automatically to the space station and there is also a backup remote control docking system. The Progress is composed of three modules: Cargo Module, Refueling Module, and Instrument-Service Module.

The Progress cargo module is similar in construction to the Soyuz orbital module. The cargo module carries pressurized cargo which the crew transfers into the station through the docking hatch. After the cargo module is unloaded, trash, unwanted equipment, and waste water can be loaded into the Progress for disposal when the spacecraft leaves the Station.

In place of the Soyuz descent module, the Progress has a module containing propellant tanks. The Progress is able to transfer propellant into the space station propulsion system through fluid connectors in the docking ring. The propellant in the refueling module can also be used by the thrusters on the Progress vehicle for controlling and re-boosting the Station. The Progress M has four propellant tanks (two each for fuel and oxidizer) and two water tanks. The Progress M1 will have eight propellant tanks and no water tanks. In the Progress M1, water will be delivered in separate containers carried in the cargo module.

The Progress instrument-service module is similar to the module on Soyuz but the pressurized instrument section is twice as long and contains additional avionics equipment. The larger instrument section carries avionics which would be contained in the descent module in the case of the Soyuz.

A typical Progress mission is similar to a Soyuz mission. The spacecraft is launched by the same launch vehicle inside a similar shroud, however there is no launch escape rocket on the shroud since the spacecraft carries no crew. The Progress spends about two days performing the rendezvous process and docks automatically to the Space Station.

Propellant is transferred to the Station tanks through connecting lines in the docking ring The crew unloads cargo from the cargo module and can transfer water manually from the Progress to the Station. When the Progress delivers air or oxygen, it is released directly into the shared atmosphere of the Space Station and Progress vehicle. There are controls in the cargo module for releasing air or oxygen and for transferring water.

While the Progress is docked to the Station it uses its propellant and thrusters to perform Station reboost maneuvers. Trash is loaded into the cargo module when the Progress has completed its mission and is ready to leave the Station. Progress vehicles normally remain at the Station for two to three months.

After separation, the Progress spacecraft performs a deorbit maneuver and is destroyed as it enters the atmosphere. Sometimes a small ballistic capsule is placed within the top hatch of the cargo module and it is ejected during entry. The capsule is equipped with a heatshield and parachute and is used to return small amounts of payload from the Station.

The Progress payload includes cargo in the pressurized cargo module and propellant in the refueling module. There will usually be some excess propellant in the propulsion system tanks in the ISM which can also be used by the Station.

The Progress M carries following cargo to a total ammount of 2350 kg

  • Maximum Pressurized Cargo: 1800 kg
  • Cargo Volume 6.6 m3
  • Maximum Water 420 kg
  • Maximum Air or Oxygen: 50 kg
  • Maximum Refueling Module Propellant: 850 kg
  • ISM Propellant Surplus available to Station: 250 kg
  • Trash Disposal in Cargo Module: up to 1600 kg
  • Waste Water 400 kg

The relative amounts of pressurized cargo, refueling propellant, air, and water will vary within the constraints of the total payload limit. For example, if the maximum amount of propellant is carried then the amount of pressurized cargo will be less than the maximum amount.

【2019年07月31日】火箭准时起飞,经过10多分钟的飞行后,确认太阳能帆板、通信系统成功展开,任务成功。目前计划于北京时间今晚23时35分与国际空间站进行对接,NASATV 将于22时45分开始直播。

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